Influenza is an illness affecting upper respiratory tract .

Symptoms of Influenza

Symptoms of the disease are fever, headache, pain in the limbs watering of eyes and running of nose and it is associated with sore throat. ' 

Causative Agent of Influenza

 Different strains of viruses are responsible for causing the disease. The disease is spread by droplet infection (cough, sneezing, and breath). 

 Treatment and Control  of Influenza

There is no particular treatment of the disease. The patient develops immunity and recovers. Rest is the only immediate treatment. Disease can be controlled by keeping patient away from other people. 


Symptoms of measles

 Measles is a very infectious and worldwide disease of children. 
The disease starts with fever with cold, cough and a watery discharge from the eyes. On the third day rashes appear first on the face and" then spread over the whole body. 

Causative Organism of measles

 The causative organism is a virus, which is air born and is inhaled in droplets. The disease spreads through the discharge from eyes and nose, which becomes air-born and spreads rapidly. 

Treatment and Control  of measles

 There is no specific treatment. Child develops immunity and the signs and symptoms of the disease disappear after seven days. The child should be given plenty of drink especially milk. It is difficult to control the disease because it is highly infectious as the patient becomes infectious about 2 days before the symptom of the disease develop. 


 Poliomyelitis is most common among the children but young and old people can also become its victims.


It begins slowly. The sufferer has very high fever, headache, nausea, fits and stiffness of limbs. In severe cases, the virus attacks the nerve fibers of the spinal cord causing paralysis of the limbs and muscles of the respiratory tract, sometime proving fatal, apart from permanent disabilities.

 Treatment and Control of Polio

There are two polio vaccines; 
sabin vaccine 
salk vaccine. 

 Sabin vaccine

Sabin vaccine is more common and is given orally in the form of drops. Two or three drops are given to infants during their first year which provides life long protection against polio by developing active immunity against it. 

 Salk vaccine

Salk vaccine is injected in to the body but it is not being practiced in our country. 

Causative Organism of polio

Poliomyelitis is caused by virus, which is transmitted by infected water. It is also transmitted by droplet infection during coughing and sneezing, of the patient. 

AIDS (Acquired immune Deficiency Syndrome) 

 AIDS is a disease in which body’s immune system, the system which protects our body against infections, is destroyed. 

Symptoms of AIDS

The body becomes unable to protect itself against many other diseases i.e. immune deficiency develops. 

Causative Organism of AIDS

 The causative organism is a virus called HIV . 

Signs and Symptoms of AIDS

 The word syndrome is used in AIDS because it is a disease with many symptoms occurring at the same time. The patient may suffer from chronic fever, severe diarrhoea lasting for months, pneumonia etc. and even cancer. 

Causes of AIDS

 It is usually transmitted by relationship with an infected person. Blood transfusion from infected person. 
 By sharing contaminated injection needles. For example when drug addicts share their used syringes. 
By using contaminated razors, surgical and dental instruments etc. Virus may pass from the infected mother to the foetus during pregnancy. 

Prevention and Control of AIDS

AIDS can be prevented by talking following measures .
By keeping to one’s own partner. 
By avoiding drug abuse as drug addicts share hypodermic needless. By using disposable syringe.
                common diseases (part 1)   Previous

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