Fourteen Points' of Quaid-e- Azam
|Quaid announces birth of pakistan|
After the Nehru Report, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was disgusted and fully realized that the parting of ways of the two communities had to explain the viewpoint of the Muslims of the sub-continent. The Quaid - gave his own scheme which has gone down in history as the famous ‘Fourteen Points’ of the Quaid which are given below
1- The form of the future constitution should be federal, with the residuary powers vested in the provinces.
2- A uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces. 3-All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principle of adequate and effective representation of minorities lovery without reducing the province.
4-In the Central Legislature, Muslims representation shall not be less than one-third.
5-Representation of communal group shall continue to .be, by means of separate electorate as at present.
6- Any territorial redistribution that might at any time be necessary shall not, affect the Muslim majority in the Punjab, Bengal and NWFP Province.
7- Full religious liberty, i.e., liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association and education shall be guaranteed to all communities.
8- No bill or resolution or any part thereof shall be passed in any legislature or any other elected body if three-fourths of the members of that community in that particular body oppose such a part there of, on the ground that it would-be injurious to the, interests of that. community or in-the alternative—streh other method-devised as found feasible and practicable-to deal with 'sudrcases.
9- Sindh should be separated from the Mumbai Presidency.
10- Reforms should be-introduced in the NWFP and Balochistan on the same footing as in other provinces.
11- Provision should be made in the Constitution giving Muslims an adequate share along with the other Lndians, local self-governing bodies .
12-The constitution should embody adequate safeguards for the protection of Muslim cplture and for the protection and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws and Muslim -dmitahle institutions.
13- No cabinet, either Central or Provincial, should be formed without there being a proportion of a least one-third Muslita Ministers.
14- No change shall be made in the constitution by the Central Legislature exrept with theromirrem.
Presidential address of Allama IqbalThe annual meeting of the Muslim League which was held at Allahabad in 1930 was presided over by Allama Iqbal. In his Presidential address he said that the NWFP, Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan should be combined in one State. Allama further said that there was no way out; it was destined to become an independent state because this was the only way'by which Muslims could live an honourable - life. They must- have a homeland so that they could preserve their culture, civilization and modes of worship. Thus a forceful demand was put forward for an independent Muslim State. The Allahabad address caught the imagination of the Muslim who started working hard for the preservation of their rights and ultimate independence.
The First Round Table ConferenceThe First Round Table Conference was held in London in December, 1930 which was attended by prominent Muslim leaders but the Congress stayed away. Many issues were debated upon, but without any tangible results.
Second Round Table Conference:Lord Irwin, then Viceroy of India and Mr. Gandhi came to some agreement after which the Congress decided to attend the Second Round Table Conference. It was decided that Sindh be separated from Mumbai and that reforms be introduced in NWFP on the lines they had been introduced in other provinces. When the British Government-became convicted that the Hindus and Muslims could not offer an agreed formula they issued an ‘Award’ themselves in 1932.
According to this Award known as Communal Award, the right of Muslims and other minorities to separate electorate was restored. In the Communal Award the ‘Achhutes’ or ‘untouchables’ were treated as a distinct minority and given the right of separate electorate.
Poona PactMr. Gandhi started a ‘fast unto death’ and put a lot of pressure on Mr. Ambedkar, the Achhut leader, to surrender the right of separate electorate. Mr. Ambedkar could not withstand the pressure and finally signed a treaty known as ‘Poona Pact’ and thus put many million Achhutes in the lap of Hindus. The Third Round Table Conference was held in November, 1932. The Congress did not attend and the Quaid-e-Azam was not invited. Only reports of various committees were discussed and finalized in this conference. Based on the recommendations of the Third Round Table Conference held in 1932, the British Government enacted a new law known as the Government of India Act, 1935. The main features of the Government of India Act 1935 are given underneath: This Act, provided for the Federal type of Government in the subcontinent.
The provinces were given autonomy. Provincial Assemblies were given more powers. , increase in Number of Members in the Number of members in the Central Assembly was also increased. In 1939 when World War II started, the Viceroy of India also declared war against Germany. Since the Congress Ministries had not been consulted, they resigned in protest. At this, on the advice of the Quaid-e-Azam, the Muslims celebrated the “deliverance day”
Deliverence day 23 March 1940. In 1940, the annual meeting of the Muslim League was held at Lahore at the place in the Iqbal Park where today the Minar-e-Pakistan stands in its majestic glory to remind the whole world that determined people can cut shackles of slavery and win freedom in a span of only seven years. Maulvi Fazle Haque, the famous leader from Bengal, moved the historic resolution in this meeting on March 23, 1940 which was unanimously passed. This resolution goes down in history by the name of Lahore Resolution or Pakistan Resolution The Resolution demanded that Muslim States be set up in Eastern and North-Western parts of India where Muslims could live in peace, lead an independent life according to the principles of Islam and preserve their distinct civilization and culture. The Resolution proved a great boon.
The Muslims of the sub-continent, under the dynamic leadership of the Quaid-e-Azam, became organized and solid like a rock. They forced the two enemies, the British and the Hindus, to accept the demand for an independent Pakistan. . The World War was still on and Germany had won initial, successes. The Indian sub-continent was showing signs of restlessness and concern. The British Government realized it and sent another mission, Cripps Mission under Sir Stafford Cripps with new proposals on the ‘take it or leave it principle’. The Mission met the leaders of various important political parties. Briefly, the British Government offered to grant freedom to the sub-continent after the end of the war. She would be a dominion under the British Crown and a Constitution would be prepared in which each Province would be a member of the Federation for at least ten years after which they could break away if they so desired. The Muslim League rejected the proposals because no guarantee had be given that the rights of the Muslims would be safeguarded. Congress also rejected the proposals but on different grounds. They thought that if the provision that a province could secede after ten years was accepted, then Pakistan would come into being after ten years, surely against their wishes, so the Cripps Mission-failed. in 1944 Lord Wavell was appointed Viceroy of India. In 1949 he prepared ’a pian and called a meeting of all important leaders, at Simla. This Conference knowm as Simla Conference also failed because no decision could be arrived at regarding the appointment of Muslim members to Viceroy’s Council. During the Simla Conference a demand for general elections was put forward from all quarters. At this the Viceroy announced general elections in the winter of 1945. In the Central Legislative Assembly all the Muslim seats were won by the Muslim League. In the Provincial elections held in the beginning of 1946, the Muslim League won about 90 per cent of the Muslim seats. This amply proved the rolaim of Muslim League to be the sole representative body of the Muslims of India.
Cabinent missionThe British Cabinet decided to send another Mission consisting of Lord Pathic Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander. This mission known as Cabinet Mission, also could not make the leaders of different political parties arrive at an agreed formula. In the absence of an agreement, the Mission presented their own formula of grouping Hindu majority provinces and Muslim majority provinces. Congress and Muslim League also withdrew its support to the Cabinet Mission Plan. As a protest against the attitude of the British the Muslims returned all the titles conferred on them. , Interim Government: The British Government made a ludicrous move and asked Nehru to form the Government which he did in August, 1946. After some discussion, the League also decided to join the ‘Interim Government’. When the portfolios were allocated, Congress appropriated all the important portfolios itself and gave to the League nominees such portfolios as were either unimportant or the Congress thought that the Muslims would be unable to do well with them. Liaquat Ali Khan, who was the Minister for Finance, made very intelligent move. He prepared a budget which was beneficial to the poor.
The Congress opposed the budget . The British Prime Minister announced the intention of the British Government to transfer power to the people of the sub-continent and also announced the appointment of Lord Mount-batten in place of Lord Wavell.
When it was decided to partition Punjab and Bengal the British Governmevf appointed Sir Radcliff as the Chairman of the Boundary Commission.
At last on August 14,1947 pakistan came into being. Quaid -e-Azam announced it on All India radio.
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